Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals. Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel.The large size of the current court is due to the fact that both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased dramatically since the U.S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891. The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.The Ninth Circuit also had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943.[fn 1]However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States.In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978.The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "[f]or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit." Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, Alaska, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope....It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we often are, or not interpreting them regularly, as we never do."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_...
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intimate particular secret special exclusive privy claimed own peculiar retired secluded common ordinary public unimportant usual general brotherly affectionate altruistic amicable benevolent charitable compassionate comprehending comradely cordial disinterested forgiving fraternal generous humane kindly neighborly personal philanthropic selfless solicitous sympathetic tender understanding unneighborly uncompanionable sisterly cool cold uncompassionate antagonistic unsociable unfriendly hostile characteristic appropriate diagnostic differentiating discriminating discriminative distinctive distinguishing emblematic especial essential fixed idiosyncratic inborn inbred indicative individual individualistic ingrained inherent innate local marked native normal original private proper regular representative singular specific symbolic symptomatic unique uncharacteristic foreign uncommon irregular untypical indefinite atypical eccentric unusual abnormal standard similar direct contiguous firsthand head-on immediate lineal next primary prompt proximate resultant succeeding devious varying interrupted intermittent deviating changing wily indirect dishonest each all any one by one piece by piece respective separate several single various without exception none egotistic affected aloof autocratic boastful boasting bragging conceited egocentric egoistical egomaniacal egotistical haughty inflated inner-directed intrinsic introverted isolated narcissistic obsessive opinionated pompous prideful proud puffed up self-absorbed self-admiring self-centered self-important snobbish stuck-up subjective superior swollen vain vainglorious reserved modest humble unpretentious egotistic\u002Fegoistic stuck on oneself shy unassuming timid submissive Chaos Agent Personal personals account anecdote autobiography biography chronicle diary essay journal life life story memory narrative note recollection reminiscence thesis treatise confessions discourse dissertation monograph register transactions annal bio tractate vita ignorance history annals epic memoirs narration prehistory recapitulation recital record relation report saga story tale version future memento mori death's-head memorial memories reminder of human failure reminder of mortality skull firsthand account nostalgia reliving remembering remembrance yarn along alongside amidst among beside for including near plus upon accompanying concomitant with additionally also as companion as well at same time besides coupled with furthermore in addition to likewise moreover side by side simultaneously too far separate apart by all of by the whole of in association with in connection with in the class of in the company of mutually out of together with with one another outside away from a step from abreast of adjacent to adjoining aside at one's elbow at the edge of at the side of bordering on cheek by jowl close at hand close to close upon connected with contiguous to fornent in juxtaposition nearby neck and neck neighboring next door to nigh opposite overlooking round verging on at the hand of in the name of over supported by through through the agency of through the medium of under the aegis of via with the assistance of along with among other things as well as counting in conjunction with inclusive of made up of not to mention rejecting excluding W.I.T.H. Chaos Agent WITH abrasive acerbic acid biting mordant pungent astringent corroding keen tart acrid alkaline erosive bland kind mild nice sweet calm soothing pithy scathing incisive trenchant stinging satiric sharp bitter harsh rough cutting acrimonious salty severe virulent acerb tasteless dull gentle stupid annoying caustic galling hard to take hateful hurtful nasty spiky unpleasant soft smooth likeable moderate agreeable pleasant pleasing acidic dry offensive sarcastic vitriolic basic austere complimentary savory delicious angry belligerent censorious churlish crabby cranky cross indignant irascible irate ireful mad peevish petulant rancorous spiteful splenetic testy wrathful helping happy peaceable kindly alkalescent alkali antacid neutralizing soluble Caustic Chaos Agent acumen intuition judgment observation understanding vision wisdom click comprehension discernment divination drift penetration perception perceptivity perspicacity sagaciousness sagacity sapience shrewdness wavelength sageness ignorance stupidity ESP clairvoyance extrasensory perception insight second sight sixth sense acuity acuteness astuteness awareness brains brilliance cleverness cunning discrimination farsightedness good taste grasp guile ingenuity intellect intelligence keenness percipience perspicuity refinement sensitivity sharpness smartness smarts wit obtuseness ineptness denseness misunderstanding insensitivity inability mistake misinterpretation feeling foreknowledge omen precognition premonition psyche telepathy cognition acknowledgment apprehension attention cognizance knowledge mind need note notice observance reasoning recognition regard neglect unawareness disregard thoughtlessness heedlessness cognitions acknowledgments apprehensions attentions awarenesses comprehensions insights knowledges minds needs notes notices observances observations perceptions percipiences reasonings recognitions misunderstandings bearing heed jurisdiction mark negligence indifference inattention Insight Chaos Agent InSight toward within aware acquainted alert alive appraised appreciative apprehensive apprised attentive au courant awake cognizant conscious cool enlightened familiar go-go groovy grounded heedful hip in the know in the picture informed into know the score know what's what know-how knowing latched on mindful on the beam on to perceptive plugged in receptive savvy sensible sentient sharp tuned in up on wise wise to wised up with it insensitive unfamiliar unknowledgeable unconscious neglectful uninformed unfriendly unaware inattentive heedless ignorant beholden bound grateful in hock obligated obliged on a string on the arm on the cuff on the tab owe one owing responsible under obligation conversant abreast au fait comprehending down with hep kept posted knowledgeable learned percipient practiced proficient skilled up-to-date versant versed well-informed witting silent quiet inexperienced custom addiction beaten path characteristic consuetude daily grind fashion form grind groove habit habitude hang-up manner matter of course mode observance practice praxis precedent procedure routine rule second nature shot swim thing trick usage use way wont irregularity difference departure divergence deviation deep abstracted centered concentrated enfolded engaged fixed focused immersed intent lost musing preoccupied rapt set wrapped wrapped up soft light open shallow pale flighty artless aboveboard unintelligent trivial superficial frivolous deeper Into Chaos Agent affecting breathtaking climactic comic dramaturgic dramaturgical effective electrifying emotional expressive farcical histrionic impressive melodramatic powerful sensational spectacular startling striking sudden suspenseful tense histrionical the Chaos Agent The application bid call claim demand overture petition plea proposal question suit address adjuration entreaty importunity invocation prayer proposition recourse requisition solicitation submission supplication imploration answer reply denial disavowal disclaimer refusal retraction revocation ugliness allure charm beauty attraction attractiveness fascination pleasingness interestingness glamor charmingness engagingness seductiveness urge sue pray propose require plead submit contest ask apply refer advance beseech beg importune entreat implore crave solicit strike supplicate adjure call upon hit on resort to turn off turn away recall give disgust revoke retract renounce refuse disclaim ignore conceal deny dissuade invite engage fascinate tantalize captivate please beguile entice tempt enchant intrigue catch the eye discourage repulse repel disenchant bore displease offend action case course development growth means measure mechanism movement operation practice procedure proceeding progress rule step system technique trial way advance channels evolution fashion formation manner mode outgrowth performance progression routine stage suit transaction unfolding wise working course of action modus operandi red tape cessation decline decrease idleness ignorance inaction inactivity stoppage failure halt convert handle prepare dispose of transform refine alter treat fulfill concoct deal with make ready take care of forget continue retain neglect keep hold preserve ignore remain activity agility alacrity alertness animation bag ballgame big idea bit business bustle commotion dash deal energy enterprise flurry force functioning game going happening haste hoopla hopper in the works industry life liveliness motion occupation plan power process proposition racket reaction response rush scene spirit stir stunt trip turmoil vigor vim vitality vivacity rest unemployment yielding peace harmony slowness dullness question inertia indolence stiffness weakness stillness repose quiet calmness calm surrender apathy lethargy laziness argument cause claim dispute evidence lawsuit litigation petition proceedings proof cases baggage bags baskets bins boxes cabinets caddies caissons canisters capsules cartons cartridges casings caskets chambers chassis chests coffers compacts coverings covers crates cratings cribs drawers envelopes folders grips holders integuments jackets receptacles safes scabbards sheaths shells suitcases trays trunks wallets wrappers wrappings discoveries algorithms bonanzas breakthroughs conclusions contrivances coups data designs devices findings finds formulas godsends innovations laws luck luck outs machines methods principles processes results secrets theorems ways bad fortunes misses losses discovery algorithm bonanza breakthrough conclusion contrivance coup design device find finding formula godsend innovation law luck out machine method principle result secret theorem bad fortune miss loss embalm anoint cherish consecrate conserve enshrine freeze lay out mummify store treasure wrap waste use squander Chaos Agent PROcess Process advocate barrister counsel counselor fixer front lip mouthpiece pleader proxy ambulance chaser legal beagle legal eagle spieler adviser\u002Fadvisor Dutch uncle aide attorney authority backseat driver buttinski clubhouse lawyer coach confidant consultant director doctor expert friend guide helper instructor judge kibitzer lawyer mentor monitor partner priest quarterback referee righthand person second-guesser teacher tutor advisers Dutch uncles aides attorneys authorities backseat drivers buttinskuses clubhouse lawyers coaches confidants consultants counselors counsels directors doctors experts friends guides helpers instructors judges kibitzers lawyers mentors monitors partners priests quarterbacks referees righthand persons second-guessers teachers tutors advisor adviser righthand man tipster tout foe enemy student pupil advisors apostle backer campaigner champion defender exponent expounder promoter proponent proposer speaker spokesperson supporter upholder opposition protestor assailant antagonist opponent advocates apostles backers campaigners champions defenders exponents expounders pleaders promoters proponents proposers speakers spokespersons supporters upholders oppositions protestors enemies assailants antagonists opponents Chaos Agent Attorney advocate counselor attorney barrister counsel counsellor defender jurist mouthpiece pleader practitioner proctor procurator solicitor attorney-at-law jurisprudent legal adviser legal eagle legist member of the bar adviser\u002Fadvisor Dutch uncle aide authority backseat driver buttinski clubhouse lawyer coach confidant consultant director doctor expert friend guide helper instructor judge kibitzer lawyer mentor monitor partner priest quarterback referee righthand person second-guesser teacher tutor advisers Dutch uncles aides attorneys authorities backseat drivers buttinskuses clubhouse lawyers coaches confidants consultants counselors counsels directors doctors experts friends guides helpers instructors judges kibitzers lawyers mentors monitors partners priests quarterbacks referees righthand persons second-guessers teachers tutors advisor adviser righthand man tipster tout foe enemy student pupil advisors apostle backer campaigner champion exponent expounder promoter proponent proposer speaker spokesperson supporter upholder opposition protestor assailant antagonist opponent advocates apostles backers campaigners champions defenders exponents expounders pleaders promoters proponents proposers speakers spokespersons supporters upholders oppositions protestors enemies assailants antagonists opponents Lawyer Chaos Agent act case charge charter code constitution decision decree legislation mandate measure order precedent regulation requirement ruling statute assize behest bidding bylaw canon caveat command commandment covenant demand dictate divestiture edict enactment equity garnishment injunction institute instruction jurisprudence notice ordinance precept prescript prescription subpoena summons warrant writ decretum due process reg disorganization lawlessness breaking transgression violation proposal rule origin maxim proposition ground source assumption criterion theorem usage formula postulate cause axiom foundation fundamental exigency reason base truth guide generalization principium end outgrowth effect consequence result outcome amendment announcement bill clause commitment judgment law resolution verdict rest suspension stoppage repose quiet inertia inactivity idleness cessation authorities ascendancy authorizations beeves charges clouts commands credits domination dominions edges esteem forces goods governments guts influences juices jumps jurisdictions leg ups licenses mastery might and mains mights permissions permits pizzazzes powerhouses pows prerogatives prestige punches rights ropes rules say say-sos steam strengths strong arms stuff supremacy sway upper hands warrants weights what it takes whip hands words zaps breaks breaches powerlessness subordinations prohibitions disadvantages lethargies lacks weaknesses inferiority authority bible CEO arbiter aristocrat big cheese big shot big wig boss brains brass buff city hall connoisseur czar egghead establishment exec executive expert feds front office governor guru ivory dome judge kingfish kingpin power elite pro professional professor pundit scholar specialist textbook top brass top dog top hand upstairs veteran virtuoso whiz wizard greenhorn rookie student amateur proletariat ignoramus adage aphorism apothegm device dictum moral proverb saying truism paradox nonsense foolishness ambiguity absurdity axioms adages aphorisms apothegms devices dicta fundamentals laws maxims morals postulates precepts propositions proverbs sayings theorems truisms truths paradoxes ambiguities absurdities bar attorneys barristers bench counsel counselors court courtroom dock judiciary law court law practice lawyers legal profession tribunal help aid advantage Chaos Agent Law authority due process honesty integrity law right truth amends appeal authorization charter code compensation consideration correction credo creed decree equity evenness hearing impartiality judicatory judicature justness legality legalization legitimacy litigation penalty reasonableness recompense rectitude redress reparation review rule sanction sentence constitutionality fair play fair treatment legal process square deal corruption dishonesty falsehood award refusal reward illegality injustice lawlessness partiality unfairness judge court umpire magistrate chancellor bar bench court of justice forum justice kangaroo court law court seat of judgment session tribunal democracy commonwealth egalitarianism emancipation equalitarianism equality freedom liberal government representative government republic suffrage disinterest detachment disinterestedness dispassion dispassionateness equitableness fair-mindedness impartialness neutrality nonpartisanship objectiveness objectivity rightfulness rightness bias Justice Chaos Agent autobiography diary journal life life story memoir picture profile sketch adventures confessions experiences letters saga bio biog close-up life history personal account personal anecdote personal narrative personal record résumé vita biography confession experience letter personal history self-portrayal history account annals epic memoirs narration narrative prehistory recapitulation recital record relation report story tale version future curriculum vitae resume literature abstract article belles-lettres books brochure classics comment composition critique discourse discussion disquisition dissertation drama essay exposition findings humanities information leaflet lit literary works lore novel observation pamphlet paper poetry prose précis research summary theme thesis tract treatise treatment writings written work speech silence quiet ignorance anecdote annal chronicle memory monograph note recollection register reminiscence tractate transactions accounts anecdotes autobiographies biographies bios chronicles diaries discourses dissertations essays journals life stories lives memories monographs narratives notes recollections registers reminiscences theses tractates treatises vitas Biography account anecdote autobiography biography chronicle diary essay journal life life story memory narrative note recollection reminiscence thesis treatise confessions discourse dissertation monograph register transactions annal bio tractate vita ignorance adventures confession experience letter letters memoir personal history self-portrayal biog close-up experiences life history personal account personal anecdote personal narrative personal record picture profile résumé saga sketch address article chat communication conversation converse descant discussion disquisition gabfest homily huddle lecture monologue oration paper rhetoric sermon speaking speech talk utterance verbalization silence quiet argumentation commentary critique disputation exposition almanac annals annual calendar chronology comic book daily daybook gazette ledger log magazine memento minutes monthly newspaper observation organ periodical publication rag record reminder review scandal sheet statement tabloid weekly career curriculum vitae memorial story death campaigning government backroom civics electioneering jungle legislature polity statecraft zoo affairs of state domestic affairs foreign affairs government policy hat in the ring internal affairs matters of state political science smoke-filled room stateship diplomacy address artfulness craft delicacy delicatesse discretion expedience finesse negotiation poise politics savoir-faire skill subtlety rudeness impoliteness bad manners ignorance governance administration authority bureaucracy command control direction domination dominion empire execution executive guidance influence jurisdiction law ministry patronage political practice power powers-that-be predominanc yielding impotence opposition surrender weakness incapacity Uncle Sam Washington predominance presidency regency regime regimentation regulation restraint rule sovereignty state superintendence superiority supervision supremacy sway the feds union revolution subservience powerlessness revolt mutiny lawlessness insurrection coup chaos anarchy submission inferiority art of the possible poli-sci political theory realpolitik statesmanship Chaos Agent Politics business finance the dismal science economics social science civil communal collective common community cordial familiar general group nice sociable societal amusing communicative companionable convivial diverting entertaining gracious gregarious hospitable informative mannerly neighborly organized pleasant pleasurable polished polite popular abnormal aloof cool disagreeable extraordinary rare uncommon unfriendly unpleasant unsociable unusual hermetical private secluded unsocial bee communal gathering harvest party social work party behavioral detectable developmental discernible evident observable outward physiological internal accepted coincident communistic commutual congruous conjoint conjunct constant corporate correspondent customary generic in common intermutual joint like mutual prevailing prevalent public reciprocal shared socialistic united universal usual well-known widespread superior sophisticated refined noble high separate particular singular excellent cultured aristocratic valuable scarce noteworthy infrequent specific individual commonest affable amicable buddy buddy clubby complacent congenial conversable cozy cozy with genial good-natured intimate mellow outgoing pally palsy tight tight with foreign opposing antagonistic adapted agreeable amical compatible complaisant consistent consonant cooperative delightful favorable fit good-humored happy harmonious jovial kindly kindred like-minded pleasing regular fellow right neighborly suitable sympathetic well-suited mean nasty harsh unhappy cold unsympathetic uncongenial incompatible ill-suited unkind hateful discordant Socials Chaos Agent Social socials art discipline education information learning skill system technique branch erudition lore scholarship wisdom body of knowledge disorder disorganization ignorance culture ability accomplishment address aestheticism capacity civilization class courtesy cultivation delicacy dignity discrimination dress elegance elevation enlightenment experience fashion finish gentility good taste grace improvement kindness manners nobility perception polish politeness practice proficiency refinement savoir-faire science tact training urbanity ineptness tactlessness rudeness impoliteness inelegance roughness crudeness bad manners clumsiness hurt harm incompetence coarseness inexperience inability cultures agriculture agrologies agronomics agronomy cultivations farmings gardenings raisings tendings apprenticeship background book learning brainwashing breeding catechism coaching direction drilling edification guidance inculcation indoctrination learnedness literacy nurture pedagogy preparation propagandism proselytism reading rearing schooling study teaching tuition tutelage tutoring neglect destruction bookishness brains intellectuality knowledge letters pedantry savvy scholarliness studiousness advice ammo break chapter and verse clue confidence counsel cue data dirt dope dossier earful illumination info inside story instruction intelligence leak lowdown material message network notice notification orientation propaganda report scoop score tidings tip what's what whole story word question silence accomplishments acquaintance apprehension attainments awareness cognition comprehension consciousness discernment doctrine dogma expertise facts familiarity goods grasp insight judgment know-how light observation philosophy picture power principles recognition substance theory misunderstanding stupidity impotence unbelief weakness inanity criminology