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Indicators show potatoes can grow on Mars

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Indicators show potatoes can grow on MarsThe International Potato Center (CIP) launched a series of experiments to discover if potatoes can grow under Mars atmospheric conditions and thereby prove they are also able to grow in extreme climates on Earth. This Phase Two effort of CIP's proof of concept experiment to grow potatoes in simulated Martian conditions began on February 14, 2016 when a tuber was planted in a specially constructed CubeSat contained environment built by engineers from University of Engineering and Technology (UTEC) in Lima based upon designs and advice provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in Ames Research Center (NASA ARC), California. Preliminary results are positive.The Potatoes on Mars project was conceived by CIP to both understand how potatoes might grow in Mars conditions and also see how they survive in the extreme conditions similar to what parts of the world already suffering from climate change and weather shocks are already experiencing."Growing crops under Mars-like conditions is an important phase of this experiment," says Julio Valdivia-Silva, a research associate with the SETI Institute who has worked at NASA's Ames Research Center (NASA ARC) and now works at UTEC in Lima. "If the crops can tolerate the extreme conditions that we are exposing them to in our CubeSat, they have a good chance to grow on Mars. We will do several rounds of experiments to find out which potato varieties do best. "We want to know what the minimum conditions are that a potato needs to survive," he said.The CubeSat houses a container holding soil and the tuber. Inside this hermetically sealed environment the CubeSat delivers nutrient rich water, controls the temperature for Mars day and night conditions and mimics Mars air pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. Sensors constantly monitor these conditions and live streaming cameras record the soil in anticipation of the potato sprouting.According to CIP potato breeder Walter Amoros, one advantage potato great genetic capacity for adaptation to extreme environments. CIP has tapped into that capacity by breeding potato clones that tolerate conditions such as soil salinity and drought, in order to help smallholder farmers grow food in marginal areas that could grow harsher under climate change.In 2016, CIP brought Mars analog soil from the Pampas de La Joya desert in Southern Peru to its experimental station in La Molina, Lima. There CIP was able to show proof that potatoes could grow in this dry, salty soil with some help from fertilized Earth soil for both nutrition and structure.Timelapse video of potato sprouting in Mars-like conditions. Credit: International Potato Center"We have been looking at the very dry soils found in the southern Peruvian desert. These are the most Mars-like soils found on Earth." Chris McKay of NASA ARC. "This [research] could have a direct technological benefit on Earth and a direct biological benefit on Earth," says Chris McKay of NASA ARC.From the initial experiment, CIP scientists concluded that future Mars missions that hope to grow potatoes will have to prepare soil with a loose structure and nutrients to allow the tubers to obtain enough air and water to allow it to tuberize."It was a pleasant surprise to see that potatoes we've bred to tolerate abiotic stress were able to produce tubers in this soil," Amoros said. He added that one of the best performing varieties was very salt-tolerant from the CIP breeding program for adaptation to subtropical lowlands with tolerance to abiotic stress that was also recently released as a variety in Bangladesh for cultivation in coastal areas with high soil salinity.Amoros noted that whatever their implications for Mars missions, the experiments have already provided good news about potato's potential for helping people survive in extreme environments on Earth."The results indicate that our efforts to breed varieties with high potential for strengthening food security in areas that are affected, or will be affected by climate change, are working," he said.The Potatoes on Mars project has been conducted by CIP with the advice of NASA ARC and construction of the CubeSat technology was done by student engineers and their advisors at UTEC. NASA and UTEC scientist Julio Valdivia-Silva collaborated extensively with teams of UTEC and CIP scientists on both phases of this experiment. He identified the soil from Pampas de La Joya desert and led the effort to construct the sophisticated CubeSat.

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Indicators show potatoes can grow on Mars Indicators show potatoes Mars barometer gauge index signal symbol beacon clue dial guide hint mark meter omen pointer warning appearance display fair pageant parade presentation program spectacle array expo exposition fanfare fireworks grandstand manifestation occurrence pageantry panoply pomp representation shine showboat showing sight splash view dullness concealment hiding reality truth affectation attitude bit chaser dissimilation fake false front feigning front performance phony pose posture pretense put-on sham show shuck and jive simulation soft soap stall stance stunt sweet talk cite illustrate point out prove acquaint advance advise announce apprise ballyhoo beat the drum for bill blazon boost build up circularize communicate declare disclose divulge drum endorse exhibit expose flaunt get on soapbox for hard sell herald hype inform make a pitch make known notify pitch plug press agent proclaim promote promulgate puff push put on the map reveal soft sell sponsor spot tout uncover unmask clue clue in fill in give the word keep posted lay it out let in on post put next to put on the line put on to report tell tip off update warn picture play movie drama production act comedy film flick carnival cinema entertainment burlesque motion picture impression seeming profession pretext air simulacrum illusion semblance effect ostentation likeness face guise make-believe grandstand play rear back quiet sell offer produce demonstrate present streak supply unfurl sport brandish flash submit spread proffer attend afford wave unfold unveil flourish stage disport mount bare arrive vaunt lay out put on show off trot out showcase deal in lay bare set out leave alone abandon close take cover veto refuse deny dissuade withhold suppress hide conceal register appear establish explain get reach show up project indicate note determine teach mark come materialize emerge loom evidence point discover manifest assert clarify evince elucidate instruct get in make out turn up be visible blow in make the scene ostend put in appearance testify to leave depart miss lose fail confuse secrete disappear obscure disprove give bestow dispense accord confer act with see lead conduct shepherd route direct escort guide steer pilot misguide neglect mislead rest suspension stoppage repose inertia inactivity idleness cessation adduce advertise keep secret secret halt discourage hurt decrease deceive disapprove bottle up advertises keep quiet pretend lie betray trick fool delude advises Simp shows yam murphy plant spud tater tuber potato Simp Potato bottle bucket canister jar package aluminum cannikin gunboat receptacle tin vessel gutbucket pop top block can check delay drop end freeze halt hinder hold inhibit interrupt knock off obstruct prevent restrain restrict retard scrub shut down stall stay suppress cleaver discharge fire hatchet poll sack tomahawk boot bounce cancel cut back dispense with eliminate get rid of give a pink slip give the boot kick out lay off remove terminate throw out pot throne head latrine privy outhouse lavatory washroom johnny restroom potty sandbox john litter box water closet backside butt behind seat posterior tush fundament rump fanny gluteus maximus hind end derrière front keep put up employ hire commit manage may make out take care of be capable of be equal to be up to can do could cut the mustard have it made make it make the grade expel dismiss cashier give the heave ho let go engage allow welcome permit arrest continue free push promote help encourage advance activate liberate expedite release further assist aid ax\u002Faxe axed axes axing Can Simp cans advance age become breed build come cultivate develop expand flourish gain increase mature multiply produce raise rise spread sprout swell thrive turn widen abound amplify arise augment burgeon dilate enlarge extend germinate heighten issue luxuriate maturate mount originate propagate pullulate ripen shoot stem stretch thicken vegetate wax branch out burst forth come to be fill out get bigger get taller pop up spring up cease compress contract decline decrease demolish destroy diminish drop fail halt ignore languish lessen lose lower narrow neglect raze recede reduce repress retreat ruin shrink stop abridge condense curtail hold keep shorten stunt accumulate amass build up collect flow gather grow accrue acquire add to agglomerate aggregate amalgamate assemble bring together cache clean up collocate compile concentrate cumulate draw together heap heap together hoard incorporate load up lump make a bundle make a killing mass pile pile up procure profit rack up roll up round up scare up stack up stockpile store store up unite divide distribute spend dissipate scatter disperse accrued accruing waste separate squander dwindle forfeit accumulated accumulates Grow Simp G. Row grows blight bruise harm impair ruin scar spoil stain sully taint tarnish wreck bend blemish blot break deface deform detract ding disfigure injure maim mangle mutilate queer scratch tweak vitiate warp foul up louse up mess up rough up shake up aid assist build clean create fix grow help adorn beautify cure decorate embellish heal mend ornament repair schedule set up straighten Copernican system Jupiter Mars Mercury Neptune Pluto Saturn Uranus Venus earth heliocentric system planetary system inner planet solar system terrestrial planet Mar Simp
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